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Investing in longevity research and understanding the brain is the final frontier for longevity, with potential solutions including natural remedies and drugs like rapamycin.

  • 🧬
    Investing in longevity research could potentially solve aging, cancer, and other diseases, with over $10 billion invested in the past four years and emerging companies, while decreasing protein and sugar intake may be beneficial for longevity.
    • The availability of advanced tools for characterizing life and the link between molecular biology and genetics has made it the correct time to work on longevity, which is why the speaker has raised a fund and started investing in research and companies.
    • The speaker suggests that solving aging could also solve cancer and other diseases, and explains why he decided to raise funds for aging research instead of focusing solely on curing cancer.
    • The pharmaceutical industry was not investing in aging therapeutics seven years ago, but in the past four years, there has been a significant increase in investment, with over ten billion dollars invested and the emergence of three hundred companies per year.
    • It is difficult to determine the ideal diet for longevity, but decreasing protein and sugar intake may be beneficial, although individual factors such as exercise and sleep patterns should also be considered.
    • There is a secret list of drugs and therapies that may have a positive effect on lifespan, but the evidence is not conclusive and is heavily reliant on genetics.
    • Most of the speaker's family members have lived to be around 80 or above, with the speaker's grandma still going strong in her mid-90s.
  • 💤
    Prioritize sleep for overall health, $60M TAME trial tests metformin's effects on aging, animal kingdom's phenotypes challenge entropy theory, advancements in biology lead to new treatments, but understanding the brain is the final frontier for longevity.
    • The speaker recommends prioritizing sleep over dietary changes for overall health, and questions the common belief that feeling better equates to better health.
    • The TAME trial is a $60 million study testing the effects of the diabetes drug metformin on aging biomarkers in humans, motivated by retrospective findings that those who took the drug had better health spans and less age-related disease.
    • The diversity of phenotypes in the animal kingdom and the differences in longevity between naked mole rats and rats challenge the theory of entropy and offer opportunities for learning from other animals.
    • Advancements in biology, such as the use of proteins, viruses, genetic engineering, and stem cells, are leading to new treatments for diseases, but the final frontier is understanding the brain.
    • It is possible to impact lifespan between three months to ten years, but none of the current tools will be sufficient on their own to result in an engineered lifespan.
    • Investing in tooling is crucial for impacting longevity, but there is still uncertainty about achieving unbounded engineered ability to do so.
  • 🧬
    The discovery of genetics' link to molecular biology in 1953 was a landmark event, with a focus on curing diseases like cancer and Alzheimer's.
    • The discovery of the link between genetics and molecular biology in 1953 is a landmark event, and while longevity raises ethical questions, the focus remains on curing diseases like cancer and Alzheimer's.
    • The rationale for longevity is to curate to lay diseases by working on aging, and the ethics of immortality involve concerns about complacency and innovation.
    • The basic income argument assumes that people's motivation comes from the fear of death and that they have an innate loss of openness with age.
    • The speaker questions whether the fear of death is the core motivator for everyone and suggests that personal growth, curiosity, competition, and a sense of mission and importance may also be motivators.
    • The cognitive changes with age are fascinating and developing a cognitive enhancer to maintain sharpness and fluidity throughout life would be valuable.
    • The discussion revolves around the idea of whether younger scientists should replace older ones and the potential use of cognitive enhancers for longevity, with a focus on individual choice rather than coercion.
  • 🧠
    Establishing a morning routine can increase productivity, while the speaker prioritizes exercise over indulgence and focuses on personal motivations to avoid stressors.
    • Establishing a set routine, particularly in the morning, may lead to increased productivity and effectiveness in work, potentially due to biological or psychological factors.
    • The speaker discusses their interest in cognitive enhancement and mentions a podcast they did with a researcher at Imperial about psychedelics, but they personally do not take any nootropics or caffeine.
    • The speaker is conflicted between their desire for a healthy lifestyle and their enjoyment of social activities, but ultimately prioritizes exercise over indulgence.
    • Maintaining energy for creatively demanding side projects is consistently the hardest habit to maintain, despite having no problem with exercise, for the speaker.
    • Think about what winning looks like before starting a project and use that as a metric for what you want to achieve, while also prioritizing personal motivations and avoiding stressors.
    • Focus on controlling your output and being happy with what you can control, as you cannot control how the world responds to it.
  • 📈
    Los Angeles has a more professional atmosphere than New York in tech and entertainment, while 🤖 the software industry is shifting towards more technologists and founder-driven companies.
    • The speaker moved from New York to California after a breakup, started a small business with friends doing hackathons, and ended up staying for six years due to his love for outdoor activities.
    • Los Angeles has a more professional atmosphere than New York in the tech and entertainment industries, and the speaker is curious about how the city has changed in the past seven years.
    • Tech is being vilified due to the incredible wealth and power being accrued to a small group of young people, with the Facebook scandal being a prime example, while biotech is receiving less attention despite working on long-term and expensive projects.
    • The speaker was inspired by successful people who knew how to build businesses and wondered how to sell a business or an idea.
    • The speaker discusses the importance of effective communication in life and the potential for more companies to emerge in the biotech industry.
    • The speaker discusses the trend of founder-driven companies and the shift towards more technologists in the software industry.
  • 🧬
    The drop in cost of sequencing has made bio more accessible, resulting in increased funding for top biotech companies and a lack of investment opportunities for smaller ones.
    • The ability to quickly and cheaply start something, enabled by tooling like AWS, played a huge role in the success of YC, and the drop in cost of sequencing has made bio more accessible.
    • The amount of funding available for biotech companies has increased significantly, but the number of companies funded has remained constant, resulting in top companies receiving more capital and a lack of investment opportunities for smaller companies.
    • Many grad students and postdocs are not aware of the possibility of starting a company due to lack of education and availability of options.
    • Pioneer is a project that aims to find the Lost Einsteins of the world, founded by Daniel Gross, who had a life-changing experience after uploading a solution to YC and meeting with Paul Graham.
    • Pioneer app is a platform where anyone can apply with their project, work for 30 days, get community votes, and potentially receive a $5,000 grant to join the ambitious Pioneer community in San Francisco.
    • Podcasting can give people the confidence to pursue their goals by creating a sense of familiarity and connection with the host.
  • 🎙️
    The speaker explores merging dissonant ideas, making podcasts more authentic, and the unique combination of logical and artistic thinking in scientists.
    • The speaker is unsure how to merge two seemingly similar but dissonant ideas without knowing the gap between them.
    • The speaker is interested in making their podcast more authentic and relatable, similar to podcasts like Rogen's, where it feels like hanging out with the person.
    • Having a conversation before recording a podcast can make it less natural, but it could also lead to more organic and fun discussions.
    • Reading books and papers is preferred over listening to podcasts as it provides more accurate and up-to-date information, although podcasts can give a similar feel for the speaker's thoughts.
    • Understanding media and pursuing ideas in math and science requires inspiration and a willingness to approach them from a more artistic perspective.
    • The speaker discusses the unique combination of logical and analytical thinking with a touch of artistic creativity in scientists, and expresses interest in factual research questions.
  • 📈
    Understanding the differentiation between germ line and soma is important for longevity, with potential solutions including natural remedies and drugs like rapamycin.
    • The speaker discusses the importance of understanding the differentiation between the germ line and soma in relation to aging and the potential for repurposing natural solutions for longevity.
    • The discussion covers topics such as the fascinating history of writing, extending fertility windows, and the importance of studying menopause for longevity.
    • The heritability of longevity is estimated to be around 11%, and while blood transfusions have shown positive impacts on age-related phenotypes, there is currently no strong evidence to suggest they significantly increase lifespan.
    • Rapamycin is a drug that has potential positive effects on longevity, but has side effects, and there are companies trying to develop safer versions with the same benefits.
    • Replacing organs with new organic ones before they fail is an old method of considering longevity, but there are still many risks and uncertainties associated with it.
    • Micah tried the cookie diet to test if it was possible to survive on just cookies for a month, but concluded that a lower sugar diet is probably a better idea for long-term health.
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