The first civilizations develop moral codes to regulate and control behavior, such as the Code of Hammurabi, the Book of the Dead, and the Decalogue of Moses.
Mythological beings in ancient Rome embody values that should be imitated, and the concept of ethics derives from Greek words meaning habits, customs, and dwelling.
Ethics is the individual ideal of self-governed life where one acts according to their own conscience, while morality is the set of principles transmitted by each generation, and philosophers have proposed various ethical theories throughout history.
Happiness is achieved through practicing virtues such as justice, strength, temperance, and tenacity, and by using reason to distinguish good from evil; different philosophies like Peronism, Epicureanism, hedonism, stoicism, and neoplatonism offer different paths to happiness and improvement.
Wisdom and intelligence are developed through spiritual reflection and self-discipline, while scholastic practice aligns with Christian philosophy and Saint Augustine believes that man is the son of God and the origin of all truth and intellectual enlightenment.
Moral value lies in the will to do good, according to Kant, while Nietzsche believes in the pursuit of power and overcoming obstacles.
Marxist ethics believes that praxis, production, and work are indicators of truth and moral goodness, with virtues such as struggle, sacrifice, and collective work, while good is what creates value and bad is what diminishes it.
Ethics of liberation in Latin America arises from poverty and marginality, emphasizing the importance of dialogue, recognition of rights, joint responsibility, and solidarity in order to achieve the fullness of life and preserve nature.
This article is a summary of a YouTube video "Ética" by Dirección General Academica-UCE